Movie BusinessVarious stages of creativity

In order to make sense of creativity, Margaret Boden divides it further into stages and forms.     The first division relates to the newness of the idea. An imaginative concept that is new to us, but not new to others is psychologically creative r P-creative.   A concept that is also new to society and history has historical creativity, thus called H-creative.  From a brain functioning standpoint, both are evenly significant, however, from a societal and cultural standpoint, historical creativity is more significant.  In addition to the above-mentioned divisions, Boden differentiates between three forms of creativity as it relates to

  1. Combinatorial creativity is new arrangements of known concepts.  Examples include: the cartoonist who decided to display Ken Livingstone as a newt, or Donne’s poetic likening two lovers being to two arms of a compass. We do this in our conversations every day through the use of analogies, images, and metaphors.
  2. Exploratory creativity or E-creativity is the investigation of current abstract spaces. An abstract space is a norm, a cultural prospect, an imaginative technique, or a genre. Norms come from groups rather than individuals. Many art forms have a standard or genre. Investigating within the abstract space is supplying new ideas that hadn’t previously been done, but following the ‘road map’ of the norm. For instance, a horror movie can be new yet follow the genre’s format.
  3. Transformational creativity or T-creativity is converting the abstract space. In other words, it is imagining the unimaginable, altering our thinking approach, or redefining the road map. T-creativity is an impractical revelation. Possible examples consist of Darwin’s theory of evolution and Einstein’s theory of relativity. In the realm of film and television this refers to modifying a genre’s forthcoming prospects or producing an entirely new genre. “The most sincere instances of creativity entail someone considering something which, regarding the abstract spaces in their minds, they couldn’t have imagined previously. … Therefore, the arrangement of previous components is just a single piece of creativity; some creativity can rearrange the mental road map, so that the entire structure by which we perceive the world or a certain genre is adjusted.”

The difference between arts and crafts

What qualifies one movie as high art and another as simply well made?  In other words, how do we differentiate between art and craft?  Craft is creating something that still stays within the exploratory realm.  Clay vases, for instance, may vary in appearance, but they will function in a similar ways.  Each vase is simply a variation on a common theme.

It is not, however, transformationally creativity, in the sense that it does not take us beyond the existing normsOn the contrary, high art challenges our current ideas and beliefs.  It invites new thinking.  As such, it may lack functionality or even esthetic beauty as we define it, but it has creative significance.  For instance, the transvestite artist, Grayson Perry, creates vases that address artist’s question of identity.  They have a message and resulted in his/her recognition in the world of art

In film, the technical expertise of camerawork and sound are seen as crafts. Thus, the craftsmen are hired to support the director’s creative vision. However, craft masters such as cinematographers are considered artists. They construct a steady body of work, work frequently with the same directors, and are influential enough to choose work that is consistent with their individual approach and dream.

The seven stages of creativity in film

In general, films are mostly creative in the exploratory fashion because they are expensive to make.  So, extreme deviations from the norm carry large financial risks.  There are, however, areas in which films can exert transformational creativity.

  1. Exploratory Creativity (Boden): There are two sub-categories of exploratory creativity: exploratory and challenging. Exploratory creativity is both standard and combinatorial. It functions inside the genre, possibly with a new storyline or circumstance. However, it is not actually confronting the genre. Challenging creativity is examining or contesting the limit of the standard/genre. It is demanding, but it does not alter the existing standard, or it does so in a small way.
  2. Transforming Creativity (Boden): The only sub-category of transforming creativity is transformational. Transformational creativity is described as high degrees of originality. It is an extreme test, accomplishing a stable modification in the industry or audience anticipation. Transformational creativity is frequently exclusive with hindsight and not essentially deliberate. A movie might be transformational in one area and not in others.
    • Technology-transformational creativity: In film, you can frequently differentiate between innovation in technology (SFX and 3D) versus innovation in the story or genre.  At times filmmakers have to create a new technology in order to tell their stories.  As a result of these cinematic advances, new methods of storytelling arise.
    • Business-transformational creativity: This includes movies like the Terminator, which merged science fiction and action genres, or Silence of the Lambs, which reignited Hollywood’s interest in a dead genre, namely crime fiction. By combining or reinventing previous genres, such movies alter the requirements of economic success for movies.
    • Taste-transformational creativity: There is an individual sub-category of movies that although not photographically groundbreaking, expands the limits of what is publicly suitable in film,.  Essentially, they change the social and ethical standards of the era.
    • Multiple-creativity: A movie can have an inventive influence in numerous areas simultaneously, and at various stages. For instance, Star Wars was creative in genre (challenging) by mixing science fiction with western and some aerial warfare, in technology with special effects and prosthetics, and in business by resurrecting the science fiction genre and adopting the franchise sequel/prequel model (originated by Planet of the Apes) with retailing offshoots.